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* 1850-1859 1870-1879 *
Pony Express mail service begin, but ends a year later when transcontinental telegraph service starts.

Over 20,000 shoemakers in 25 New England towns strike to prevent their wages from being cut and to gain union recognition.


Abraham Lincoln becomes president.

The American Civil War begins when Confederate troops capture Fort Sumpter in Charleston, South Carolina.
Congress authorizes the Union Army to accept African-American soldiers.

Homestead Act offers 160 acres of public land in the western United States to settlers willing to settle on the land for 5 years.


President Abraham Lincoln signs the Emancipation Proclamation, declaring freedom for enslaved persons living in states under the control of the Confederacy.

Congress initiates free mail delivery in cities.


The Battle of Gettysburg in Pennsylvania marks a turning point in the Civil War, as Confederate forces retreat to the South after losing this important battle.
General Sherman and 62,000 Union soldiers sweep a 60-mile wide path of destruction in Georgia, severely weakening the Confederacy.


Civil War ends when Confederate General Robert E. Lee surrenders to Union General Ulysses S. Grant at Appomattox Court House, Virginia.


Abraham Lincoln is killed by an assassin five days after the Civil War ends.

The 13th Amendment abolishes enslavement in the United States.

Freedmen's Bureau is established to aid freed African Americans.
Congress authorizes a five cent coin called the nickel.

After 12 years of effort, a telegraph cable between England and the United States is successfully laid across the Atlantic Ocean.
The United States purchases the Alaska territory from Russia.

The first organization of American farmers, known as the Grange, is founded to provide social and educational opportunities for rural inhabitants.
The 14th Amendment grants rights and priviledges of American citizenship to African Americans.

A skating congress is held in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania to set regulations for the increasingly popular sport of ice skating.
First transcontinental railroad is completed at Promontory Point, Utah, providing continuous railroad transportation across the entire United States.


The National Woman Suffrage Association is formed with Elizabeth Cady Stanton as its first president.

* 1850-1859 1870-1879 *

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